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Tuesday 3/19  Program  Session Abstracts
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 Paper Abstracts

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DANDURAND, Guillaume (U Sherbrooke) Leveraging Artificial Intelligence: Hopes, Expectations, and Limits of Digital Technology in Times of Emergency. In recent years, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) designed and implemented a pilot project, Reaction Assessment Collaboration Hub (REACH), to better support MSF humanitarian interventions in times of emergencies. REACH is an online platform that leverages artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to improve information management and foster a more efficient decision-making process during natural disasters. To assess the epistemic values of AI technologies through collaborative action research, this paper builds on the growing literature on digital humanitarianism to ethnographically explore the hopes, expectations and limits of new technologies created to satisfy the institutional needs of MSF. guillaume.dandurand@usherbrooke.ca (S-38)


DANLAG, Jaine (USF) Tales of Trafficking: Performing Women’s Narratives in a Sex Trafficking Rehabilitation Program in Florida. This paper teases out the interaction between national narratives about human trafficking and the victim identification process within the criminal justice system. As the United States has criminalized “prostitution,” but has sensationalized domestic sex trafficking over labor trafficking narratives in national media, there are differential verdicts in situations that resemble trafficking depending how well they conform to the quintessential trafficking victim narratives as presented in American media. This paper analyzes these narratives and how they contribute to the criminalization of some and the rehabilitation of others based on race, age, gender, nationality, and religious affiliation. Jaineedithda@mail.usf.edu (F-69)


DARIA, James (U Oregon) Fair Or Fairwashing?: Ethnographic Approaches to Evaluating Labor Practices in the North American Food System. Food justice movements in North America seek to link conscious consumption with environmentally sound production processes in line with high labor standards. In the past decade a number of labels have arisen, marking certain products as fair, equitable and just. How accurate are claims to fairness across borders? Through fieldwork with migrant farmworkers in Mexico who produce food under various “fair” trade labeling schemes, numerous inconsistencies are found in terms of protection of labor rights. This paper will also offer solutions to ensure the voices of those who produce our food are incorporated into claims to fairness. jdaria@uoregon.edu (F-68)


DASCHBACH, Alissa Bronwyn (WWU) All-Healing Weapon: The Value of Devil’s Club Root Bark in the Treatment of Diabetes. Epidemiological models of type 2 diabetes disregard social determinants that play a prominent role in the disease’s predominance among the world’s Indigenous Peoples, creating a chasm between health care providers and the sick. Recognizing the import of cultural and spiritual connotations in disease management, remembering to bring in sacred foods and medicine, and the oral stories that have held integral knowledge over millennia can close this divide. By weaving a discussion of Indigenous methodology, ethnopharmacological inquiry, and biochemical analysis, I will explain why the inner bark of Oplopanax horridus (devil’s club) contains antidiabetic activity despite scientific evidence to the contrary. (TH-33)


DASS, Rhonda (MNSU-Mankato) Silent and Silencing Voices: Working With Native Activists. On the 50th Anniversary of the American Indian Movement native activism has again been brought to the forefront with actions across North America including pipeline protests such as the actions at Standing Rock. How do we as anthropologists champion native activists and work with a community that needs our confidentiality and sometimes our silence? In my work with native activists in Minnesota, I am continuously challenged to walk in two worlds and speak like a relative. This presentation explores the ethics of working with native activists, who have cause to fear the repercussions for their actions. rhonda.dass@mnsu.edu (F-14)


DAUGHTERS, Anton (Truman State U) Potatoes, Curanto, and Chicha: Food and Culture in Southern Chile’s Archipelago of Chiloé. This paper explores the culture and botany of southern Chile’s archipelago of Chiloé through its food. Drawing from fieldwork and interviews carried out from 2006-2017, I focus on the history and social significance of potatoes (a native staple of the region), curanto (an earth-bake tradition), and chicha (hard apple cider). More than pastimes or sources of nourishment, these foods are emblems of a larger islander identity today. They represent the fusion of Spanish, Huilliche, and Chono cultures, as well as unique work patterns and social relations that islanders uphold as representative of a rural and highly esteemed way of life. adaughters@truman.edu (F-15)


DAVENPORT, Sarah (Brown U) Hyper-Local Food for All: Understanding Race and Urban Development through Food Security Initiatives. Simultaneous to the 1980s US Environmental Justice movement, food security became a national movement to change the food system. While changes in the form of sustainable urban agriculture often operate under a food justice rubric, “sustainability” discourses are often socially and politically neutral. Using food insecurity to understand structural racism and unequal urban development, this paper critically examines Fleet Farming, an urban farming organization in Florida. Based on ethnographic fieldwork from 2017-2018, it explores the extent to which their food security/sustainability initiatives consider the racial and socioeconomic inequalities related to their work in a historically African American, food insecure community. sarah_davenport1@brown.edu (F-13)


DAVID, Gary (Bentley U) Customer Experience as Social Movements: Applying Social Movement Theory for Organizational Change. Customer experience is about more than improving point of contact satisfaction. More generally, it is about changing an organization’s culture such that the customer is at the center of every decision made. Much has been said about “top-down” approaches to instilling a voice of the customer perspective in an organization. Nothing has been done in terms of applying what we know about social movements and social change to customer experience programs. This paper explores ways in which social movements can be established in organizations to achieve cultural change in customer-centric initiatives. gdavid@bentley.edu (W-22)


DAVIDSON-HUNT, Iain (U Manitoba), PENADOS, Filiberto (Ctr for Engaged Learning Abroad), COC, Cristina (Julian Cho Society), and MCDONALD, Marvin (Wabaseemoong Independent Nations) Constructing a Practice of Biocultural Design through Working with Manomin (Wild Rice) and Cacao in Anishinaabe and Mayan Territories. Indigenous Peoples territories are noted for their richness in both biological and cultural (biocultural) heritages. Yet for many Indigenous Peoples, even after gaining territorial recognition, they continue to have some of the most precarious economies in the America. We have worked with Indigenous Peoples who aspire to meet contemporary goals rooted in their knowledge, values, and lands and waters. In this paper, we discuss an initiative to work with Anishinaabe and Mayan colleagues to construct a practice of biocultural design through projects of cultural creativity focused on plants central to their cultural identities, namely manomin and cacao. Davidson-Hunt@umanitoba.ca (F-44)


DAVIS-SALAZAR, Karla (USF) Going to the Dark Side: Liminality and Identity among New Associate Deans in Higher Education. The transition to academic administration for new associate deans signals a significant, often unexpected, shift in collegial relationships, embodied by the often-invoked phrase, “going to the dark side,” to connote this change in status. Neither fully faculty nor administrator, new associate deans enter a period of liminality, characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty, as they learn how to navigate the changed social landscape and fulfill their new, unfamiliar roles and responsibilities. Through ethnographic interviews of associate deans across the U.S., this paper explores the experiences of new administrators as they make sense of their changed social status and construct new identities. karladavis@usf.edu (F-95)


DAVIS, Becky (Creighton U) Cooking and Learning Together: “Announcing” a Health-Promoting Vision of Nutrition. Karen refugee mothers in Omaha, primary care clinic nurse coordinators, nutritionists, and faculty, including the author, started a partnership that explores food and nutrition as a common thread for reciprocal learning about health. The “cooking workshops” became a rich learning environment where partners gained insight about food and culture through shared experiences between mothers who have a common goal - raising healthy children. This Presentation discusses how cooking side-by-side, exchanging recipes, and telling stories in the kitchen made it a true shared experience that not only “denounced” (Paulo Freire) unhealthy nutritional habits but also “announced” healthy cooking and eating practices. (F-124)


DAVIS, Brittany (Regis U) Critical Self-Reflection and Personal Transformation in the EJ Classroom. Often students walk into environmental justice courses unaware of how their positionality has affected their (lack of) exposure to environmental inequities. While they may learn the policies and factors which place communities at risk through the readings, critical self-reflection can aid in their transformation into participants in EJ. In this talk, I describe an assignment where students critically reflect on and engage with how their race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and privileges shape their relationship with the environment at the beginning of the semester and how their understanding of this changed throughout the semester. brittany.y.davis@gmail.com (W-08)


DAWSON, Symantha (ColLAB, U Kansas) HIV and Tanzania: Exploring Post-Illness Identity. Iringa, Tanzania has one of the highest HIV/AIDS rates in Tanzania (National Bureau of Statistics, 2017). Health and medical literature has consistently linked Africa and African nations to HIV/AIDS through disease etiology, social determinants of health, illness experience, and trials/medicine. This conceptual link between HIV/AIDS and Africa has resulted in a globally understood illness identity for Africans. However, this link creates a one-dimensional, static identity, one with which many Tanzanians, even in areas with the highest prevalence of HIV rates, may not identify. I ask two questions: what happens to health identity in situations of “post-illness.” (W-96)


DAYE, Rebecka (OR State U) Environmental Ethics and GMO-free Activism. In May of 2014, Jackson County Oregon passed a GMO-free law via citizen’s initiative and democratic process thereby achieving some measure of food sovereignty. In 2017, I undertook an ethnographic research project with Our Family Farms Coalition in Jackson County to elucidate how efforts to gain food sovereignty fit within the broader context of social movements, activism and the call for increased food democracy. This presentation highlights the intersectionality of environmental ethics and activism, the negotiation of multiple “food” sovereignties in land-use practices and policies, and the creation of a GMO-free Seed Sanctuary in Jackson County. dayer@oregonstate.edu (TH-32)


DE LA ROSA, Ivan and SCOTT, Mary Alice (NMSU) Collaboration in Turbulent Times: Interprofessional, Multidisciplinary, Interinstitutional Teamwork to Develop a Social Determinants of Health Clinical Screening Tool. Social determinants of health (SDH) screening tools are becoming more widely used in clinical settings, particularly primary care. Development and evaluation of such tools requires the input of a broad range of stakeholders with differing backgrounds, goals, investment, and competing demands, which can create challenges to this kind of collaborative work. This presentation describes the process of developing a primary care SDH screening tool evaluation that includes three institutions and five professions. We share the challenges and successes of developing this collaborative project focusing on the role of anthropologists and other social scientists as key members of the team. lilo@nmsu.edu (S-96)


DE MUNCK, Victor (Vilnius U & SUNY New Paltz) Gay, Polyamorous and Straight Lovers: Is There One Model of Romantic Love That Fits All? Romantic love is considered a cultural universal by many researchers. It appears to be the case. May (2010) has argued that romantic love relative to sex has remained a constant over time (and he appears to include people who identify as non-heteronormative in his assessment. I extend the concept of romantic love to be not only a feeling/emotion/drive but also as a social relationship. This study investigates romantic love across the above gender identities to evaluate its “constancy” and how it folds into and out of its universalist envelope. I suggest that we are undergoing transformations. demunckv@gmail.com (W-45)


DE PREE, Thomas (RPI) The Technopolitics of Cleaning Up the “Grants Uranium District” of Northwestern New Mexico. In the “Grants uranium district” of northwestern New Mexico, there is a large-scale, high-tech operation underway to monitor and cleanup the uranium mine waste and mill tailings from the U.S. Cold War development of nuclear weapons. The former mining district encompasses parts of Acoma Pueblo (Haaku), Laguna Pueblo (Kawaika), the Navajo Nation (Dinétah), as well as Hispano and Anglo settler communities. The goal of my research is to refine our understanding of the different stakeholders involved in cleaning up the former mining district, as they deliberate about the possibility of restoring the natural and cultural resources of northwestern New Mexico. depret@rpi.edu (TH-137)


DE SA, Celina (Dartmouth Coll) Constructing the Door of Return. West African practitioners of capoeira, a martial art developed by enslaved Africans in Brazil, seek to reconnect with lost histories and kin in the form of Brazilian capoeiristas that have begun to “return” to the continent. I argue that these everyday events of artistic practice are revolutionary acts of communion that defy the history of dispersal. Equally important to setting in motion the project of repair is confronting tensions surrounding pilgrimages. Through the story of my father, an Afro-Brazilian capoeira Master who traveled to Dakar, Senegal on the premise of ancestry, but also his “expertise,” I explore misrecognitions of healing. celina.a.de.sa@dartmouth.edu (TH-104)


DE WET, Thea and VAN ROOYEN, Carina (U Johannesburg) #Feesmustfall and Blended Learning at the University of Johannesburg. The #Feesmustfall (FMF) student revolt of 2015 and 2016 highlighted the funding crisis and need for transformation of South Africa universities. We interviewed students and faculty at the University of Johannesburg (UJ) about their learning and teaching experiences during FMF. We are specifically interested in whether the pedagogical response can be seen as socially just and draw on Nancy Fraser’s (2008) ideal of ‘participatory parity’ to explore this. Unlike other universities, UJ never closed but a hostile learning and teaching environment was created through securitisation of campuses. Faculty responded by increasing online activities assuming students could carry on as usual. tdewet@uj.ac.za (TH-06)


DEAN, Kenneth (U Missouri) The Role of Higher Education as the Gateway to the Professions: Perspectives on the Legal Profession. The profession of law can serve as a case study to examine the evolving nature of access to membership in the legal profession utilizing higher education as the gateway. The law/higher education relationship provides a model that can be or has been utilized by several other professions. This relationship raises some troubling questions about the relatively new role of higher education in serving as a prerequisite for entry into more and more professions. We raise several concerns about how serving as a gateway may have unforeseen effects on higher education. deank@missouri.edu (F-05)


DEEMING, Karen (UC-Merced) Growing Changelings: Adult Adoptees and the Art of Belonging. My anthropological research on adoption engages constructivism of narratives that inform identity, among adoptees, adoptive parents, and birth parents. I use methodologically innovative methods to gain insights into the impact that adoption has to those involved beyond the initial transfer. Adoption is not a single event, but instead follows the participants through life and gathers new meaning as adoptees gain greater understanding of themselves, and as relationships to others are exposed. I use inquiry into familial roles, performativity, and narrative construction as a lens to interrogate the changing attitudes on adoption and the effects on transracial and transnational adoption. kdeeming@ucmerced.edu (W-160)


DEL CASTILLO TAFUR, Cynthia (Pontificia U Catolica del Peru) Art and Sorority: Weaving Care and Encounter Spaces in Communities Post Internal Armed Conflict. Sacsamarca (Ayacucho, Perú) was one of the most affected Andean communities by the political violence between 1980-2000. Through the cooperation agreement between Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP) and Sacsamarca signed in 2013, social diagnosis, undertaken by PUCP, showed it was crucial to work with local women (sacsamarquinas) on weaving care, trust and communitarian strengthening via open art spaces (Warmikunawan) facilitated by specialized volunteers. Participant observation made in the space shows not only the challenges to gain Warmikunawan’s main purpose but also the diverse forms in which it is transformed insofar sacsamarquinas make the space theirs and re-invent it. cynthia.delcastillo@pucp.pe (W-07)


DELANY-BARMANN, Gloria and MCILVAINE-NEWSAD, Heather (WIU) Study Abroad as Community Engagement and Activism. Study abroad often provides students with life-altering experiences they will reference for the rest of their lives. This presentation will highlight the experiences of students who participated in an Undergraduate International Studies Foreign Language grant in Puerto Rico and Ecuador in 2017 and 2018. We will discuss students’ experiences working with community-based organizations and learning through a pedagogy of place. Through internships and research in farmers’ markets, sustainable agriculture, entrepreneurship, and working with Venezuelan refugees, students engage in community development and activism. ga-delany-barmann@wiu.edu (TH-125)


DELCORE, Henry (CSU-Fresno) Fresno Foodways: Teaching about Visibility and Recognition of Immigrant, Refugee, and Diasporic Food Work. Fresno Foodways is a research project and website developed by Fresno State anthropology faculty and students. The site explores the food work of Fresno-area immigrant, refugee, and diasporic people through telling their migration and food stories. Fresno Foodways counters racism and xenophobia with portrayals of the community-sustaining food preparation work of migrant and diasporic people; we explicitly seek to portray people as indispensable members of our communities. This paper recounts the pedagogical challenges and successes involved in engaging undergraduate anthropology students in Fresno Foodways and offers insights on what we can hope to accomplish with such interventions. hdelcore@csufresno.edu (F-68)


DELIE, Jackie and BIEDENWEG, Kelly (OR State U) Human Dimensions of Adaptive Management in Malheur Lake. Stakeholder engagement for natural resource management enables the integration of diverse knowledge and values to make more informed and supported decisions. Recruiting and maintaining engagement requires allowing individual identities to coexist under a superordinate identity. The Harney Basin in Oregon is currently managed through a collaborative. We interviewed stakeholders who have and have not participated in the collaborative and found diverse sources and descriptions of individual identities. For those who supported management practices, however, their identities fit within the superordinate identity of a healthy Malheur Lake. The continued embracing of individual identities will enable trust and collaboration for adaptive management. (W-111)


DELISLE, Takami (UKY) Anthropology Graduate Training in Turbulent Times: Multiple Marginalization in the Micro-context of Power Relations. This presentation reconsiders the fundamental principle of anthropology – promotion of human diversity and equity. It argues that efforts for anthropology’s contributions to equity and social justice through research, practice, and advocacy must be integrated into its formal and informal graduate training. The discussion draws from my current ethnographic fieldwork on graduate training experiences of U.S. minoritized anthropologists who do not self-identify as white. It highlights how these anthropologists experience marginalization in multiple ways (i.e., racialization, gendering, precarity, immigration) and argues that anthropology graduate training must center around decolonial perspectives by incorporating marginalized students’ voices with the sensibility to power. (W-94)


DELOUIZE, Alicia (U Oregon), LIEBERT, Melissa (NAU), EICK, Geeta (U Oregon), KOWAL, PaulNAIDOO, Nirmala, and CHATTERJI, Somnath (WHO), FAN, Wu (Shanghai CDC), BIRITWUM, Richard (U Ghana), AROKIASAMY, Perianayagam (IIPS India), ROJA, RosalbaLOPEZ RIDAURA, Ruy, and TELLEZ ROJO, Mara (NIPH Mexico), MAXIMOVA, Tamara (Russian Academy of Med Sci), REFIL WE PHASWANA-MAFUYA, Nancy and PELTZER, Karl (HSRC South Africa), SNODGRASS, Josh (U Oregon) Presence of Depression Based on a Symptom-Based Algorithm Versus a Clinical Depression Diagnosis in a Global Sample of Older Adults: The Influence of Socioeconomic Status. We evaluated 12,646 women and 10,705 men over the age of 50 from Mexico, China, South Africa, Ghana, Russia, and India. Both a self-report of clinical depression diagnosis and a depression inventory and algorithm previously validated were used to assess under- and over-diagnosis. Self-rated poor health was the largest and most consistent predictor of depression. Age, memory, and income affected depression differently among groups. In addition, an interaction effect was present such that as income increased, people were less likely to have had depression in the past 12 months, but more likely to have a diagnosis of depression. adelouiz@uoregon.edu (W-105)


DEMOSS, Lessye Joy (U Alabama) Modest Aims: Life Goals and the Model of Family in a Small Southern City. As a preliminary study to a comparative cross-sectional survey of health and life expectations, models of life goals and family were explored, using cultural domain analysis, among adults in a small Southern city. It appears that many of the most important life goals held in this community have to do with family: being married, raising children, having family around and time to spend with them. The ideal family is one in which members love, respect, and communicate with one another. They take care of each other, the parents support their children, and religious practice is a part of their lives. ldemoss@crimson.ua.edu (F-45)


DEMOSS, Lessye Joy (U Alabama) Performing a Model of Sacred Marriage. An ethnography of communication explores the ways people use language in situational contexts, and what the patterns of such usage reveal. As a study of communication, this approach goes beyond grammar or rhetoric to take into account all of the ways in which the members of the group communicate. I used a conversational analysis framework to collect information about nonverbal behavior, such as proxemics, facial expression, eye contact, and gestures. My focus was on the way that, through their words and behavior, church members and leaders demonstrate for the congregation a model of Christian marriage. ldemoss@crimson.ua.edu (W-45)


DEMYERS, Christine (ASU) Garden Communities in the Impoverished City: Opportunities to Establish Justice from the Grassroots. Community gardens are increasingly used by persons experiencing homelessness, residents living in public housing, and people living in impoverished neighborhoods to buffer food and income needs. Most research on gardening in disadvantaged populations focuses on the struggle for accessibility to healthy and affordable food. Less understood are the connection between the gardens and resistance to larger systemic injustices. With a background in public anthropology, I build upon over a year of volunteer work and participant observation in a disadvantaged, predominantly Black, community network in Phoenix to study the opportunities that a grassroots urban gardening network provides for correcting systemic injustices. (W-104)


DENGAH, Francois (USU), THOMAS, Elizabeth (SMU), HAWVERMALE, Erica (UNT), and TEMPLE, Essa (WWU) “Find that Balance”: The Impact of Cultural Consonance and Dissonance on Mental Health among Utah and Mormon Women. Cultural consonance and religious participation are both associated with salutogenesis. Yet, studies of religious and other cultural models must take in to account multiple and conflicting cultural norms. In this paper we explore the consequences of trying to adhere to the oppositional cultural models of religious (Mormon) and secular American gender roles as perceived by college-aged women at an American Intermountain West campus. Via cultural consonance analysis, we demonstrate that while conforming with one model may provide social and mental health benefits, striving for consonance with both results in increased stress levels for both Mormons and non-Mormons alike. (TH-135)


DENIAU, Christophe (CIRAD) Understand “Human-Waterbirds-Wetlands Relationships” to Meet Conservation and Human Development Issues: An Empirical Social-Anthropological Case Study of Sahel-Sahara People Knowledge and Behaviour. Each year, the migration of millions of afro-palearctic waterbirds between Eurasian breeding and Sahel-Sahara wintering regions bring human and waterbirds to interact and share common resources. However, global and local environmental changes affect waterbirds populations and wetlands without clear understanding of the multiscale social-ecological mechanisms. Thus, a social-anthropological study was conducted in 2018 in five Sahel-Sahara countries on people knowledge on wetlands, waterbirds, hunting, law, migrations and perceived dynamics. It allows a first understanding of how cognitive factors can influence human behaviour impact on a social-ecological system and, in a transactional process, how this impact influences knowledge in turn. christophe.deniau@cirad.fr (W-138)


DENNISON, William C. (UMCES) Integrating and Applying Science in a Unique Boundary Organization. The University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (UMCES) refined scholarship as discovery, integration, application, and teaching in 2000. The Integration and Application Network (IAN) was created within UMCES in 2002 to serve as a boundary organization to harness the power of science to tackle environmental problems. IAN formed a team of Science Integrators and Science Communicators who work with a wide diversity of partners to conduct scientific syntheses, communicate results to wide audiences and conduct environmental assessments (e.g., report cards). IAN provides teaching and training to increase the science integration and communication capacities of multiple organizations around the globe. dennison@umces.edu (W-122)


DENNY, Rita (Practica Group) and SCULL, Charley (Filament Insight) Creating Place through Mobility Choices. This paper reports on a multi-year exploration of place-making through mobility that was conducted in Singapore, Wuhan, São Paulo and San Francisco. Our goal is to illuminate the process of how spaces become places through mobility choices across different cultural geographies. Whether riding electric mini-buses through the neighborhoods of Wuhan, bicycling the streets of São Paulo, navigating the meticulously designed MRT system in Singapore, or using ride-hailing as part of mobility ecosystems in San Francisco, we look at how mobility choices create and contest identity, community and our sense of place. rdenny@practicagroup.com (W-142)


DEPUY, Walker (UGA) Towards a Political Ecology of Rights-Based Conservation: Translation, Hybridity, and Scalability in an Indonesian REDD+ Project. Conservation today utilizes public-private partnerships to advance multiple agendas, from climate change mitigation to green development. How local and indigenous rights are protected amidst these efforts remains a critical question. Focusing on an Indonesian REDD+ program, this paper interrogates how rights-based mechanisms are influenced by and influencing such hybrid governance regimes. This research illustrates how the political is often elided in pursuit of rendering community rights (including informed consent and land tenure) technical and scalable for conservation. This raises substantive questions regarding the politics of translation around rights, as well as how to pursue more effective and just conservation practice. wdepuy@uga.edu (TH-44)


DERTIEN-LOUBERT, Kim (Woven Paths Inc) Cultivating Fear, Transplanting Custom and Belief: The Appropriation of Traditional Plant Harvesting Protocol in the NE Alberta Oilsands. Culturally significant traditional plants used by Indigenous land users provide medical, nutrient, cultural and spiritual sustenance and benefit to people. However, at this juncture in time between pre and post-development land users, Indigenous land stewardship, customary and protocol practices may be at a crossroads. Disturbance and removal of plants and habitat by development is changing the availability of traditional use plants for harvesting, generating fear for future availability and use. This impact, fear, and related responses come with significant implications, such as changing the nature of peoples’ customs, beliefs, practices, and relationship to the land, and to Indigenous Rights. kim@wovenpaths.ca (TH-140)


DESMOND, Kathleen (Emerita, U Central Missouri) Postmodern Retirement (Designing Higher Education Retirement for Cultural Relevance, Value and Worth). Retiring is a kind of culture shock not often discussed. Retiring is the conclusion of a community/cultural membership. It is a loss of a work, social and intellectual community. Retiring requires creating an intellectual and a social position in a new/different culture after having been defined on the basis of occupation in the past. Designing relevant integration into the larger community is the task of this postmodern retirement occupation. This presentation focuses on the challenges of reframing 50 years of higher education culture, values, attitudes, and behaviors into a new and relevant postmodern retirement culture. desmond@ucmo.edu (TH-124)


DEVLIEGER, Patrick (KU Leuven) Gardening: Bringing Aging and Disability Together. Gardening, or the development of a relation between plants and humans, is one that can clarify aging into disability, and disability into aging. I will first develop the case of gardening in the history of the leprosy settlement of Kalaupapa, where gardening was akin to survival, food provision in a frontier style, and eventually heritage, including a rediscovery of its many functions in the cultural landscape. Then, I will draw implications for the potential of gardening in people with dementia, suggesting that gardening brings disability and aging together. patrick.devlieger@soc.kuleuven.be (W-103)


DI GIOVINE, Michael (W Chester U) What “Anthropological Perspective?”: Challenges in Translating an Anthropological Worldview to Global Tourism and Preservation Practitioners. In tourism and heritage, anthropologists and industry professionals may not see eye-to-eye, though among both parties there is a growing recognition of a need for interdisciplinarity and consultation. Yet anthropologist-practitioners often experience trouble in translating our disciplinary worldview—based on a particular set of ideologies, beliefs and practices—in intelligible ways. Based on years of experience studying, working, participating as a member, and addressing meetings of UNESCO, ICOMOS, and the UNWTO, as well as representing academic tourism and heritage anthropologists in leadership capacities, this talk examines the convergences and divergences of our perspectives, and offers thoughts on ways to bridge such differences. (TH-99)


DILLY, Barbara (Creighton U) “Advancing” a Theory of the “Beyond.”This paper proposes a heuristically robust anthropological theory of participatory action research that advances transformative action in diverse settings across time and space. It is grounded in methodological procedures and practices that share meanings and visions for diverse stakeholders in reciprocal relationships. This approach advances critical ethnography techniques by developing transformative research skills sets focused on building and sustaining long term relationships. It is advanced as both pedagogy and practice in the context of engaging students with diverse groups of food justice action groups in Omaha, Nebraska to further greater stakeholder engagement with the broader public to influence policy. bjdilly@creighton.edu (F-124)


DINAR, Humera (Purdue U) What Has Actually Changed for Women?: An Account of Women Entrepreneurs and Structural Challenges in Northern Pakistan.Entrepreneurship and self-employment for women is now a new mantra of NGOs and the relevant government institutions to steer development funds. However, the relevant projects, programs and plans, mostly based on the assumptions of economic efficiency and development, see entrepreneurship as an economic phenomenon only that undermines the socio-cultural dimensions of it. Most importantly, gender and entrepreneurship broadens its conceptual and practical understanding, beyond the conventional discourse. The lack of understanding of intersectionality of gender, class and ethnicity in this domain, perpetuate inequities. This ethnographic work examines the structural challenges faced by women entrepreneurs that go unnoticed by policy makers. hdinar@purdue.edu (F-53)


DIRA, Samuel (St. Lawrence U) Cultural Responses to Ecological Changes among the Sidama of Southwestern Ethiopia. Sidama farmers rely on rain-fed agriculture and experience a highly variable natural environment. Recurrent drought, erratic rainfall, and crop and livestock loss are common in mid- and lowland areas, but local people use accumulated knowledge and skills to respond to and buffer ecological changes. Based on freelists and in-depth interviews with 110 adults from lowland and highland communities, this paper describes how the Sidama conceive of ecological risks and respond to difficult times. The results indicate that food shortage and drought are salient risk factors in lowlands, but diverse knowledge about saving, trading and farming help people survive environmental challenges. sdira@stlawu.edu (TH-15)


DIVER, Sibyl (Stanford U) Networked Sovereignties: Indigenous Science and Water Governance in the Klamath River Basin (California, US). This paper considers Indigenous self-determination strategies for Klamath Basin salmon restoration through the lens of “networked sovereignties,” where Native American tribes are realizing self-determination by creating novel scientific networks. Klamath Basin tribes have been a leading force in dam removal and river restoration to improve water quality for salmon, a cultural keystone species. Some tribes have created their own scientific networks, simultaneously engaging local, county, state, federal, and tribal government agencies in tribal salmon restoration. By using social network methodologies and a community-engaged approach, we consider how such polycentric governance arrangements are shifting Indigenous environmental governance in the Klamath Basin. sdiver@stanford.edu (F-143)


DIXON, Lydia (CSUCI) What’s in a Name?: Obstetric Violence as Gender Violence in Mexico. The movement against “obstetric violence” brings attention to gender-based violence in healthcare in ways that other terms – mistreatment, abuse – have not. Rooted in the Mexican context and in conversation with related global movements, I argue that the term “obstetric violence” links women’s experiences in birth to gender violence throughout their lives. However, it is also a slippery concept that is difficult to regulate. If it is true that naming a problem “can change not only how we register an event but whether we register an event” (Ahmed 2017:34), we need to think about how we register obstetric violence. lydia.dixon@csuci.edu (W-99)


DODARO, Lauren (Tulane U) The Coexistence of Globalized and Local Environmental Knowledge in the Indigenous Community of Canelos, Ecuador. Indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon have experienced major changes in recent generations, including an increase in formal education. This education results in an increase of both globalized knowledge and globalized ways of learning in children’s lives; however, it also contributes to the decrease in the persistence of local knowledge amongst younger generations. This research, conducted in the community of Canelos, Ecuador, explores ways that the two forms of knowledge can coexist, with a focus on traditional environmental knowledge, which is a particularly important means of livelihood and cultural resilience for indigenous residents of the Amazon. laurendodaro@gmail.com (W-111)


DODSON, Michael (U Alabama) Sensory Experience and Embodiment in Third Wave Coffee. It has long been known that the consumption of goods creates and reinforces class distinctions. Recently however there has been a plethora of new connoisseur goods, like beer, chocolate and coffee that have joined the ranks of the traditional connoisseur goods such as wine. This project employs participant observation and interview data to study social difference in specialty, or “third wave coffee.” The data suggests that experience in third wave coffee might be shaped by occupations in the industry as well as things like age and gender. This question is being further explored by cultural consensus and residual agreement analyses. mcdodson2@crimson.ua.edu (W-172)


DOKIS, Carly (Nipissing U) Beef for a Moose, Cash for Your Hides: The Misconstruction of Harm in the Mackenzie Gas Project Environmental Assessment. Environmental assessment is the institutional apparatus through which proponents concede harm associated with extractive projects. Within these processes, proponents work to define the nature and scope of harm, which is made legible through the production of technocratic indicators and measurements, and made manageable through technological intervention or by providing economic compensation. This paper examines discourses of harm in the assessment of the Mackenzie Gas Project in the Sahtu Region of the Northwest Territories. I argue that Sahtu Dene conceptions of harm associated with extractive industries are often rendered invisible in assessment processes precisely because they resist such quantification and commodification. carlyd@nipissingu.ca (W-92)


DONAHUE, Katherine (Plymouth State/White Ash Inst) Metaphors of Migration into France and the United States: Flows, Floods, and Invasions. Migration into France from its former colonies in North and West Africa is nothing new. However, since the 1970s immigration has been portrayed by right-wing parties, especially Rassemblement National, formerly the National Front, as an imminent danger to French culture. Similarly, immigrants into the U.S. are seen as criminals about to flood the streets of American towns. The paper draws on recent fieldwork and on social media in both France and the U.S. to discuss images and metaphors used to galvanize French and American opposition to an invasion by alien Others. kdonahue@plymouth.edu (W-32)


DONALDSON, Joe and GRAHAM, Steven W. (U Missouri) Strategy Choices of Higher Education Leaders: The Influence of Institutional Logics. The purpose of this research is to articulate the pressures faced by USA higher education leaders lived experiences and the relationship to problem definition, attention focus, and strategy choice. A conceptual Model of Strategy Choice by Higher Education Leaders is proposed to capture the dynamics between exogenous pressures and problems and leaders’ choice of strategy, and decision making. The model addresses two social processes (sense-making and decision-making) associated with reproducing and altering institutional logics. The findings highlight distinctions between conventional, pre-transformative, and transformative leadership thinking and their association with different dimensions of problem definition, organizational learning, and strategy choice. donaldsonj@missouri.edu (TH-34)


withdrawn DONINE, Dylan (IUP) An Ethnographic Study of Black Lung in Northern Appalachian Coal Miners and the Fight for Federally Entitled Financial Benefits. In recent years, media coverage has aided in exposing a resurgence of black lung and difficulty receiving diagnosis labeling victims “disabled enough” to earn financial compensation entitled to them through the federal government. This paper completed for an undergraduate honors thesis addresses the testaments of retired coal miners from Western Pennsylvania afflicted with pneumoconiosis (black lung), and their families. An ethnographic approach was taken in the research and includes a series of interviews with miners and family members. Applied anthropological methods will bring to life personal stories about the structural violence and black lung epidemic that afflicts Appalachian coal miners. (TH-21)


DONKERSLOOT, Rachel (AK Marine Conservation Council) Incorporating Well-Being Concepts into Salmon Management: Lessons from Alaska. Salmon are an integral facet of health and well-being in Alaska and form a base for traditional livelihoods. These practices, norms and values are essential contributors to well-being but measuring such attributes of well-being in a policy relevant way remains limited. Here we discuss the diverse and complex ways that salmon-human connections contribute to various forms of well-being, and how well-being concepts have been incorporated into Alaska salmon management decisions to date. We present a conceptual framework for better integrating well-being concepts into management and discuss broader tensions between equality and equity in the context of Alaska resource governance. rachel@akmarine.org (F-143)


DOUGHTY, Paul (UFL) What’s Going On?: Revisiting Project and Research Sites. Classic Anthropological research was based on the idea researchers shouldn’t intrude upon or influence the customary behavior of those being studied. This was a basis for some of the original disciplinary disapproval of applied anthropology. Today, sharing one’s findings with those you research is widely accepted if not required, as Oscar Lewis discovered in Tepoztlan decades ago. Going back to discover what has happened years later is often both a rewarding and learning experience, illustrated by some cases from Peru and Mexico. (S-04)


DRAPER, Suzanne C. (UCF) Charismatic Catholic Healing Masses in Yucatan: Changing Concepts of Health and Healing in Times of Uncertainty. For many Mexican Catholics grappling with illness, health and healing are often sought through both biomedicine and spiritual care. Healing experiences in the medical capacity can be unsatisfying, impersonal, or degrading. Many parishioners attempt to mitigate this issue in their illness journeys through spiritual reverie, raising the question: What does it mean to be “healed?” This research explores the ways that performative elements of Catholic pageantry in charismatic healing masses function to deliver an element of care parishioners find missing in biomedical experiences and examination room practices. suzanne.draper@ucf.edu (S-36)


DRESSLER, William (U Alabama) Culture as a Space of Meaning. The spatial metaphor for culture is no more well-represented than in Geertz’s observation that humans are animals suspended in their own webs of significance. Less poetically, this implies that culture is a Euclidean space within which individuals exercise their agency. Cognitive culture theory suggests that culture can be decomposed into three dimensions: shared knowledge (cultural competence); contested knowledge (residual agreement); and social practice (cultural competence). This paper presents empirical evidence from Brazil that these dimensions do indeed form a cultural Euclidean space that impacts subjective well-being. (F-45)


DREXLER, Elizabeth (MI State U) Speaking Truth to Power in a Post Truth Era. Anthropologists have argued that science and truth are socially constructed, but now, they are under attack in the public sphere. How do anthropologists and activists respond? How have knowledge claims been made in specific political struggles across time and space? Drawing on work with US students and Indonesian activists, this paper reflects on how students and activists understand the challenges and opportunities of justice projects in the post truth era. What can anthropological theory, methods and case studies contribute to preparing students to be critical global citizens; how is this reflected in our teaching and civic engagement work with students? drexler@msu.edu (F-14)


DRIESE, Mary Catherine (ASU) Community Health Evangelism: Ideological Flexibility and Adaptation to Local Needs. Community Health Evangelism (CHE) is a health care delivery and evangelism strategy utilized in lower-to-middle income countries (LMICs) across the world. This paper investigates the way that this strategy is implemented in rural communities in Guatemala via U.S. evangelical churches, volunteers, and funds. While it would seem that CHE ideology situates itself firmly within a U.S. neoliberal paradigm, the author finds that CHE as implemented in the Guatemalan context is ideologically flexible, adapting to local preferences, which contradicts prevailing assumptions about the relationship between missionaries and the communities in which they insert themselves. mary.driese@asu.edu (S-36)


DRISCOLL, David (U Virginia) and HINZ, Stephanie (Council of Athabascan Tribal Govts) A Mixed Methods, Participatory Model to Identify Community Health Needs and Determinants. Community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are required of tax-exempt hospitals under the Affordable Care Act. Participatory research methods can augment CHNAs by identifying local health needs and concerns, along with their social determinants, to promote more effective health programs and interventions. There is a need for research to understand and operationalize the process by which participatory CHNAs are conducted and the outcomes disseminated. This paper describes the process and outcomes of a sequential, transformative mixed methods study design to identify community health needs, their determinants, and develop culturally-tailored interventions with residents of the Yukon Flats region of Alaska. DDriscoll@virginia.edu (S-96)


DRYDEN, Eileen (VA) From Rubrics to Ethnographic Site Visits: Measuring “Culture” Change in the US’ Largest Integrated Health Care System. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the US’s largest healthcare system, has faced political scrutiny related to its organization and quality of care. To address these challenges, the VHA is ‘transforming its culture’ by creating a Whole Health System of Care (WHSoC). This paper provides an overview of the intended goals of the WHSoC, questions whether or not it is simply a culmination of a number of recent trends in healthcare (e.g. Patient Centered Care, consideration of Social Determinants of Health) or something deeper (e.g. where the biomedical model of health is supplanted) and discusses the challenges of measuring culture change. eileen.dryden@va.gov (TH-03)


DU BRAY, Margaret (Augustana Coll), BURNHAM, Morey and RUNNING, Katrina (Idaho State U) Hydrological Shifts, Lifeways Shifts: Changing Policy and Lifeways in Idaho’s Eastern Snake Plain Aquifer. After 20 years of litigation over irrigation water, surface and ground water users in Idaho’s Eastern Snake Plain Aquifer developed the 2016 settlement agreement. This landmark agreement marked the first time that these stakeholders began to alter their management strategies with an eye towards future use. Using interviews conducted with stakeholders in the area, we ask: what enabled this change in management? What constraints do stakeholders face as this policy is implemented? Our study offers suggestions for those facing changes to water access as a result of climate change, particularly in the Mountain West. meg.dubray@gmail.com (W-50)


DU PLESSIS, Elsabe (U Manitoba) Flexible Sustainabilities. Sustainability is a key concern in current global health parlance, partly tied to concerns about vertical programming, fragmented care and short funding cycles. These issues may pose a specific challenge to communities participating in successive programming, who may become disillusioned by continual turnover and shifting priorities. Based on a three-year ethnographic engagement with a global maternal, newborn and child health project in eastern Kenya, I demonstrate how community members strategically engage with sustainability discourses, actively participating in the formation of the discourse while contesting and remaking program activities to better meet local exigencies, what I refer to as flexible sustainabilities. umduples@myumanitoba.ca (S-06)


withdrawn DUBOIS, Zachary (U Oregon) Applied Outcomes of the Transition Experience Study: The Development of the No Stallin’ Bathroom App & the Gender Embodiment Scale.We are in a moment of change in the U.S., some refer to as the “trans tipping point” whereby trans and gender diverse people (TGD) are increasingly visible in popular culture and society. However, backlash and entrenchment in a gender binary lead to continued marginalization and risk. Interviews with 65 TGD people during Transition Experience Study revealed two key challenges: navigating gender-segregated spaces and mistreatment in healthcare settings. We will describe the process of engaging applied research to address these challenges through collaborative efforts and the development of the “No Stallin” phone App and “Gender Embodiment Scale.” zdubois@uoregon.edu (TH-157)


DUBOWITZ, Daniel (Glasgow Sch of Art) and DUICA-AMAYA, Liliana (Los Andes U) Megalomaniacal Landscapes. The immediate aftermaths of increasingly militarized narco-environments are apparent, however what their long-term impact might be is yet to unfold and difficult to foresee. What will be needed for a community and its territory to fully recover? We present fieldwork from the demilitarization of Columbian land-mined cocoa-fields and set this in the context of Henry Ford’s devastation of the amazon to build a rubber plantation: ‘Fordlandia.’ Almost a century apart they reveal a continuity of culture from the megalomania of Ford to the delusions of grandeur of Drug Barons and the hubris of guerrillas laying mines around cocoa-fields. dandubowitz@gmail.com (F-47)


DUDGEON, Matthew (Emory U Med Sch) Night’s Watch: Developing Procedural Skills through Simulation-Based Training with Internal Medicine Residents and Interns During a Night-Shift Rotation. This paper presents the development of a pilot teaching project at a university teaching hospital focusing on the teaching of procedural skills with ultrasound-compatible simulation models. In this project, internal medical residents are trained in ultrasound-guided paracentesis and peripheral intravenous access as well as intraosseous access during their overnight rotations. The paper describes the development of ultrasound-compatible models and a didactic approach to training residents overnight. The paper uses ethnography to examine residents’ experiences with overnight training. (TH-03)


DUIGNAN, Sarah (McMaster U) Using Podcasts as Ethnography for Digital Food Activism. Using my own podcast, AnthroDish, as a case study, I position podcasting as an ethnographic tool that connects food, identity, and activism during periods of global political unrest. Food acts in these interviews as a foundation to explore the nuances of political and social justice movements, both locally and globally. The slow pace of podcasts allows interviewees to navigate the ways they personally use food as social and political acts and enhanced by the sense of a future audience. Here, food is used as a force of change, operating as radical local shifts against globalized consumerism and industry. sarahduignan09@gmail.com (TH-13)


DUKES, Kimberly (U Iowa Inst of Clinical & Translational Sci), BUNCH, Jacinda (U Iowa Coll of Nursing), REISINGER, Heather Schacht (VA & U Iowa Carver Coll of Med), and GIROTRA, Saket (U Iowa Internal Medicine) Rapid Response System Collaboration: Bedside Nurses and Rapid Response Teams. Most US hospitals use rapid response systems to evaluate and treat deteriorating patients to prevent unexpected death. Evidence of their success is mixed, however, possibly due to variation in implementation. To identify key factors in the rapid response system and the team component, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with hospital leadership and clinical staff (nurses, respiratory therapist, physicians) at a Midwestern tertiary care center. In this presentation we define patterns of collaboration between bedside nurses and response team members, including identification of declining patients, teamwork or exclusion, debriefing, and education. kimberly.dukes@gmail.com (TH-93)


DUNCAN, Austin (U Arizona) Living “The Social Life of TBI”: On the Value of Embodied Research in the Social Sciences. This paper explores the role and effect of embodied research in blurring the relationship between ethnographer and field. It draws on fieldwork that I, a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivor, conducted with a nascent and disjointed community of TBI survivors in Seattle. This population has received little social scientific attention outside public health studies detailing alarming rates of social isolation, poverty, and homelessness. My own closeness to the subject both helped and hampered my fieldwork, leading me to suggest new ways of understanding and assessing today’s ethnographic field to produce new and applicable knowledge about marginalized communities. awdunc@email.arizona.edu (F-128)


DUNCAN, Whitney (UNCO) “Denver Loves Immigrants”?: Latinx Health Citizenship and Immigrant Incorporation in Urban Colorado. While Denver has long been a prime immigrant receiving community, the city’s immigrant population has increased nearly 50% since 2000. Along with this growth, the city has emerged as a leader in the national sanctuary movement and in implementing municipal policies to protect immigrants. But can Denver and its immigrant-serving public healthcare institutions offset the “chilling” effects of exclusionary federal policies on Latinx immigrant health citizenship? In this paper, I answer this question by detailing preliminary ethnographic findings from research conducted with immigrants, health care providers, immigration advocates, and public officials in the Mile High City. (F-10)


DUNSTAN, Adam (UNT) Diné Sacred Sites and Settler Ecology: The Ontological Hierarchy of US Law. US laws which ostensibly protect indigenous sacred landscapes often fail to do so meaningfully. This is in part because legal phrases (such as “access” and “use” of land) are interpreted according to settler ontological assumptions about pollution and land. I describe a battle over ski resort expansion on a Diné (Navajo) sacred mountain, focusing attention on how judicial logics of pollution explicitly marginalized Diné sacred ecology, establishing “exclusionary hierarchies of knowing” (Schulz). This case highlights how ontological hierarchies structure land policy implementation, rendering settler ecologies as factual and the lived experienced of indigenous peoples as “merely” religious/subjective/emotional. adam.dunstan@unt.edu (F-32)


DURHAM, AndraHEFFERAN, TaraSULLIVAN, Shelby, and BAKER, Alex (GVSU) “What are you going to do with that?”: Meaning, Application, and Declining Enrollment in Undergraduate Anthropology. Using a midwestern university as a case study, this paper explores two questions: Why are anthropology enrollments in decline and what can be done to boost enrollments? Drawing on research completed at Midwestern U during Fall 2017 - including in-depth interviews with anthropology faculty, focus groups with anthropology majors, and a survey of students enrolled in general education anthropology courses - the paper considers the socioeconomic and political context associated with the enrollment decline, as well as how individual faculty and students make meaning relative to their anthropology experiences. Specific recommendations for reversing enrollment drops are included. durhaman@mail.gvsu.edu (W-94)


DUROCHER, MaryKATZ, AnneZHANG, KeCHARBONNEAU, DeborahEATON, TaraABRAMS, Judith, and THOMPSON, Hayley S. (Wayne State U) eHealth Strategies among Cancer Survivors.“eHealth,” a term designating the Internet-based and communications technologies used to assess, monitor, and improve health, represents a promising approach to addressing needs of cancer survivors as they transition from active cancer treatment to post treatment survivorship. Tasks of survivorship can include the management of long- and late-term treatment effects and adhering to recommendations for post-treatment surveillance for cancer recurrence or new cancers. In this presentation we discuss findings from an AHRQ-funded study using anthropological approaches and ethnographic techniques to study personal health information management (PHIM) and eHealth activity of cancer survivors for the purpose of developing survivor-centered eHealth tools. (W-36)


DUTHIE-KANNIKKATT, Kaitlyn and DAVIDSON-HUNT, Iain (U Manitoba), VACAFLORES, Carlos and LIZARRAGA ARANIBAR, Claudia Pilar (Comunidad de Estudios Jaina) Designing for the Decolonial Resistance: Mobile Museums and the Cultivation of a Food Knowledge Commons in Tarija, Bolivia. In Tarija, Bolivia, campesino women in partnership with local activist-researchers have used the practice of biocultural design (Davidson-Hunt et al. 2012) to create a museo en movimiento. This mobile – or, living – museum acts as a site for centering local knowledge about food while decoupling food production from the colonial narratives that dominate the region’s culinary scene. This paper considers how biocultural design can cultivate a collective understanding of food knowledge as commons, to be protected and shared on the terms of those who have shaped it, and how such a practice might support broader processes of decolonial resistance. duthiekk@myumanitoba.ca (F-104)


DYER, Christopher (UNM-Gallup) Total Capital Systematics and Disaster Resilience in Fishing Dependent Communities. Total capital systematics is the study of regional and extra-regional flows of the tangible and intangible resources of social, human, biophysical, economic and cultural capital. Collectively, total capital contributes to the lifelong adaptation of a person, group, community, or social network. We examine impacts on total capital flows of community resilience under cases of diachronic and synchronic disaster events in fishing dependent community networks in New England and in the community of Mangrove Bight, Honduras. Shifts in adaptive resilience to long and short-term disruptions are correlated with shifts in total capital flows including capital loss, activation, and transformation. cpdyer@att.net (F-103)


withdrawn DZUBUR, Valerie (Samuel Merritt U) Human Migration in the Context of War and Genocide: Lessons Learned from the Bosnian Experience Where “They Killed Our Lives.”This presentation will present a story of human migration in the context of war and ethnic cleansing. We now know that human development is disrupted in children, identity forfeited and cultured ruptured. More specifically this discussion uses the Bosnian experience of four families that escaped to the United States in 1995.These families escaped the siege of Sarajevo by crawling through the now famous 4-foot tunnel, constructed under the city, to reach the airport. Now twenty years later it is informative to consider the process of healing and rebuilding that underpinned the recovery of their lives. Vdzubur@samuelmerritt.edu (TH-103)