1) United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (i.e., also known as the WCED and the Brundtland Commission) study findings were published in 1987, Our Common Future (Norgaard 1994:12;17;194; Carley and Christie 1993:11;42; Goodin 1992:63):
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Schlingemann in "Introduction" 1995:XIV; Norgaard 1994:17; Carley and Christie 1993:42;)[Original text published in 1987:43 by Oxford University Press:Oxford].
2) The Forest Service defines sustainability:
as the ability of the biophysical resource - or ecosystem - to meet human needs and wants without degradation. By maintaining forest health, diversity, and productivity, sustainable forest management ensures that the commodity and environmental needs of the present and future generations can be met (USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station: A strategic Framework for Forestry Research and Development in the South," July 1997).
3) In Report of the [North Carolina's] Governor's Task Force on Forest Sustainability, sustainability was defined as:
the management of our forests to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs for forest products and forest-related values (Hunt 1996:iii; expanded on P.6).
4) The American Forest and Paper Association defines "sustainable forestry" ("Sustainable Forestry" June 1995 brochure):
Sustainable forestry means managing our forests to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs by practicing a land stewardship ethic which integrates the growing [,] nurturing, and harvesting of trees for useful products with the conservation of soil, air and water quality, and wildlife and fish habitat.
Their definition underlies the "Forest Principles and Implementation Guidelines" developed through a collaborative approach in their "Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI)."
5) The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) frames their definition in terms of a responsible management philosophy adapted to regional forest activities (FSC-United States Initiative brochure):
Forest stewardship means maintaining the forests ecological integrity, minimizing the impact of harvesting on biological diversity, respecting the rights of forest-dependent communities, and conserving the forests economic values.
Their work is done through "environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable" forest management (Fact Sheet: About the Forest Stewardship Council).
6) Green Politics, concerned with "ecological wisdoms" which include "shifting economic priorities from consumption to conservation" define sustainable development as (Goodin 1992:185-186;193-194):
an economic system oriented to the necessities of human life today and for future generations, to the preservation of nature and a careful management of natural resources...a steady-state economy reliably yielding a tolerable standard of living rather than a boom-bust economy.. the actions required include The maintenance and extension of forests, especially for the biological cleaning of air, the safety of water supply and for recreation.
7) In a book entitled Clearcut: The Tragedy of Industrial Forestry, the authors proclaim a "deep ecology" view, divergent from "traditional forestry" (1993:262-275). They declare the "Ecoforesters way" which includes "good work," "appropriate technology," and an "ecological wisdom" based on "wholistic forest use" and "landscape ecology." The guiding principle is that "Nature knows best" and that "Nature sustains up; we do not sustain Nature."
8) This concept is more in line with the Goddess-worshiping philosophy, Greek mythology, of the Gaia hypothesis which claims that (Eisler 1988:73-75;193):
all the living matter of earth, together with the atmosphere, oceans, and soil, form one complex and interconnected life system.
Riane Eisler also claims in the The Chalice & the Blade: Our History, Our Future, that our current "legacy" from this Greek mythology is reflected in the use of the term "Mother Nature."
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